Text 1. What is gender?


The term gender first appeared in the works of foreign sociologists, psychologists & historians in the late 60-s – early 70-s of the last century. Later it was accepted by linguists. It turned to be helpful for the description of anthropocentric problems in general.

Gender factor, taking into consideration man’s sex together with its social “consequences”, - is one of the basic characteristics of personality.

It influences the person’s awareness of one’s identity. And on the other hand it helps other members of the society to identify person & person’s place in the society.

Initially, the term “gender” was used to describe social, cultural & psychological aspects of “feminine” in comparison to “masculine”. Basically, the term gender grew up from so - called “women’s studies”, when women were trying to assert their proper place & role in a society.

In the 80-s investigations in the sphere of gender were fetched to another level. Gender wasn’t just used for the explanation of women’s history & psychology. Gender dealt with versatile investigations of femininity & masculinity in relation to cultural expectations associated with them.

In 90-s a new branch of gender research came to life. Scholars started to pay their undivided attention to “masculinity”. They arrived at the decision that masculinity is differently manifested in different societies. The main scientific trend got the name of Hegemonic masculinity.

Nowadays there is still no homogeneous idea of the term “gender”. Some researchers trace it to mental constructs or models developed to have more clear scientific descriptions of sex & to define the boundaries of its social & cultural functions. The other scholars view gender as a social construct being created by the society (with the help of language either).


Task 1: Answer the questions.

1.Where & when did the term “gender” first appear?

2. In what way was it initially viewed?

3. What does the author of the text mean by “cultural expectations”?

4. What aspect of gender was stressed in the 90-s?

5. Did the researchers of gender come to a unanimously recognized definition of gender?

Task 2: Find in the text the equivalents to the following words:

А) социологи, психологи, историки, лингвисты, учёные, исследователи;

Б) личность, исследования, общество, объяснения;

В) общественный, научный, антропоцентричный, культурный, психологический.

Task 3: Paraphrase the following expressions

Turned to be helpful, versatile investigations, taking into consideration man’s sex together with its social “consequences”, person’s awareness of one’s identity, “feminine”, “masculine”, to pay one’s undivided attention, homogeneous idea, basic characteristics of personality.

Task 4: Write down all the sentences, containing Passive Voice & translate them into Russian.

Task 5: Working in groups of 3-4 discuss the problem of gender, give your ideas of the problem.


внутриманжеточного давления во время. функционирование левого и правого. Духовно нравственное воспитание